WHAT CAN BE A PROBABLE BOTTOM OF INDIAN STOCK MARKET?

We have seen a sharp fall in the market these days. Now, everyone has a question that what can be a probable bottom? where we should start buying? Bottom of the market already made? Should we buy or will we have missed out this opportunity? Yes, Nifty has reached to the fair value zone but pendulum never stayed at the middle zone it will go extreme to both the direction. So, we have seen upside extreme and now have to see downside extreme move.

Before starting answering the above questions, here, I am requesting you to read my old article which I had posted on 4th August 2019. In that article, I mentioned regarding market fall. Please first go through that article because the current article is a continuation of that article.

THE INTELLIGENT INVESTOR – 3 – A CENTURY OF STOCK-MARKET HISTORY

Now, if we analyze current fall then we can say that Indian corporate and GDP has witnessed a limited growth in the past. Also, Covid-19 virus has disrupted the entire world economy. Majority of the economy has started giving a revival package but if we look at the speed of the spreading of Covid-19 and death of the people then it is very painful for us as well as the economy.

Our PM has announced with the 21 days lockdown to fight against the Covid-19. We have taken this step well in advance so that we can able to control the situation, because if the situation will go out of control then we do not have a proper infrastructure for citizens to cure.

I have taken a few data from HDFC Bank India growth outlook 2020, cost of lockdown.

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By looking at the above data and havoc of Covid-19 in the world, it is essential to go for the not only lockdown but to declare an emergency in India. Now, let’s go to the economic impact of this mayhem. People can oppose that government of the majority of the economy has started announcing a revival package. But We have to think that it’s not a financial crisis where you pump liquidity into the system and things will start recovering. It’s taking the lives of people so what will change after the liquidity get infused. People try to save life rather use those liquidities. So, disruption can take time to revive. If this problem can worsen it will be led to a financial crisis which is still pending to come. It’s just my thoughts, don’t know what can happen but this thing looking worse than any financial crisis.

If the normal situation has come where growth remains subdued then the market can remain in range but here this difficult situation can hamper the earning badly.  we have to understand that our states of India are equivalent of the many of the country where corona has done huge damage. Here, the world economy gets hamper, trade around the world hamper, supply chain get disturbs, corporates have to fund fixed cost, they only can manage variable cost through the lockdown.

Many of the articles and reports indicating towards global recession and as intense as the recession of 1929. I don’t know that will happen or not but I only can pray that such will not happen because it will take many further issues with many of the lives. Let’s not getting into the debate and do some number crunching which is always my favourite.

Current, Nifty EPS is ~Rs.444 so proceed with the calculation based on that. I am assuming current EPS will remain same for FY20 and all degrowth will account in FY21 and FY22 (if the situation will not come to the control then FY22 will also go for a toss).

I have taken the bank rate as an SBI FD rate after the rate cut.

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Now, if we look at the earnings yield to bond yield ratio then it has reached at the 1.03x in the current period. If we take same EPS and take that ratio to the worst happen during the 2008 – financial crisis then it was 1.11x so nifty level come to the 8000 but Covid-19 will going to hamper earning growth and might be a new level of earning yield to bond yield ratio can come, which I have taken a range of 1.25 to 1.50 with a different scenario.

If things will be in control in coming few days then might be 5% degrowth can be possible and then market also maybe get stable at the old worst level of earning yield to bond yield ratio – 1.11x to 1.25x. But if things will get more worst then now and continue with coming 1-2 months then 10% degrowth in earning can be expected. I have made a study in S&P500 of USA and in that market earning yield to bond yield ratio has reached around 3x in worst level which I am not considering as of now. If we see that then past falls in the market have accounted for ~50% fall from the top so that that will also come to ~6215 level.

Now, another point is that earnings growth always essential for generating returns in the market. So that market can be remaining in the range till no sign comes for earning growth revival because, on the hope of earnings growth, the market has already run a lot.

I have posted an article on WHAT CAN BE A PROBABLE RETURN FROM SENSEX IN COMING 10 YEARS? a way back and where I have taken SENSEX level after 10 years on worst earning growth of 3.50% came at 43547 on P/E and 57678 on P/BV based. So, if earning growth cannot revive then the market can remain in range for a longer period. But from the current base, we can have a good chance of making a return in the range of 4-7% CAGR in the index overcoming 10 years. Tax cut reform will also aid in earning growth coming forward. We only have to pray that situation will not worsen from here and for that we have to stay at home, stay safe and fight against Corona.

#Stayhomestaysafe #Stayhomesavelives #Fightagainstcorona

Disclosure – Companies mentioned in the article are just for an example & educational purpose. It is not a buy/sell/ hold recommendation. 

THE DISTRESSED DEBT CYCLE – 10 – MASTERING THE MARKET CYCLE

Mr Marks has mentioned that he has focused on the distress debt companies where he selects the company which is operationally well but having a debt-laden balance sheet. Means company has to work on reducing debt which will bring value creation for shareholders.

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So that we have to analyze thoroughly to identify the value of the company and at the end of resolution what we rewarded. If after resolution amount worth higher than the currently available debt securities price then we should buy those securities. This is difficult to play in India but we can play such where a business does not have a much problem but due to some problems the company has brought debt. When the company started paying debt, we can look into it. One of the air-cooler company has a track record of success in such a strategy.

Example of failure of this strategy in India – One of the Jewelry company in India

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If we see the above balance sheet then we can see that inventories of the company were higher than debt. If the company liquidate its entire inventories and pay the debt then also the company remains with excess cash. And company available below that value.

As we have seen in the credit cycle that when credit is easily available then everyone goes for it with the compromise on the standard. But when the economy starts to contract at that time, credit availability becomes tough so that debt-laden companies cannot able to refinance their existing debt. This incident brings them at the event of bankruptcy and that hurt the psychology of investors. Selling of the debt securities starts and prices falls as everyone starts avoiding it.

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Disclosure – Companies mentioned in the article are just for an example & educational purpose. It is not a buy/sell/ hold recommendation. 

Read for more detail: Mastering The Market Cycle: Getting the odds on your side by Mr.Howard Marks

The Intelligent Investor – 8 – The Investor and Market Fluctuations

When we have invested in the bonds then that will get little fluctuation to the market price. But when we have invested in the common stocks then it will have a wider fluctuation to the market price. So that we need to be ready financially and psychologically for upcoming fluctuation into our common stock investment. It is easy to advise for not doing a speculate but hard to follow it. Fluctuation and behavior of the market attract us to make a speculative decision. So, if we want to make a speculative decision then keep aside some amount of money as considering that we are going to lose it through speculation.

We need to take a benefit from the swing of the market pendulum rather than getting trapped into it. And we can take a benefit by way of timing to the market or through pricing.

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We cannot predict the direction of the market consistently and if we start predicting a direction then we end up as a speculator, not as an investor. People want to buy during the bear market where everyone else is selling and sell during the bull market where everyone else is buying. But people are tending to do the reverse, the majority of the people buy at high / during a bull market and sell at low / during a bear market.

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Similar has happened during the year 2017, people have seen a bull market from the year 2014 to 2017 and they started believing that this will never be going to end and stock prices keep on going higher and higher.

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1st, 2nd and 3rd point has been explained to the previous articles of the same series.

One of the optical and data networking products company

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IPO of the company came at Rs.257 so that MCap was ~Rs.2367cr which was at the EV/EBITDA of 14.09x in FY17 and stock price rose to ~Rs.437 in FY18 which was at EV/EBITDA of ~26.33x. The company has incurred losses in a few years and came to profit since FY2016.

One of the publication company

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The IPO of the company came at P/E of 33x and EV/EBITDA of 16.59x.

Day-to-day or month-on-month fluctuation to the market does not make investors richer or poorer. But what will happen for a longer period that will impact the wealth of investors. We need to keep distance ourselves from the crowd rather than go with the crowd. Also, we need to focus on emotional stability over an investment journey which helps us a lot. The normal investor gets trapped with greed as the market starts advances, but at the same time, intelligent investors booked a position of overpriced issues and parked those funds to bond, he will re-balance his portfolio.

Owning a common stock means we are a part-owner of the business, but due to the advancement of the stock market operation, investor’s mind gets diverted and they are getting more engaged towards the stock prices. They forget that stock price fluctuation should not be focused but they have to focus on the value of the businesses, quality of the businesses and progress of the businesses. Stock prices bring distance between business and us. If a person is making an investment for a longer period, but getting fluctuated as stock prices get fluctuate then he does not know for the emotionally stable and matured investors. Matured and intelligent investors do not focus on the price quotation every second but they focus on the underlying business. As businesses show successes it becomes popular among the people and it will command more premium, its mood swings with the market, etc.

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We need to focus on earning the power of the business with the asset value of the business. But we should avoid paying higher to the assets as well as to the earning, otherwise, we need to be stay affected through the market fluctuation.

One of the telecom company

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(Source – Thoughts on Thoughts blog)

The company looks very cheap based on the financial metrics and assets base, but if someone who does not have paid attention to the business of the company and earning the power of the business then—

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One of the gelatin company

The company has some uncertainty and raw material problems but having a stable business. The company was traded at ~Rs.66 cr of MCap with having investment + cash on the balance sheet was worth of ~Rs.70+ cr so that entire business was available at free due to uncertainty. The company has delivered a decent return with also deliver Rs.10/per share as a dividend.

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Few critics of value-based investing tell that such an approach does not work with the listed companies due to the ample amount of liquidity available. Such liquidity and stock market platform provide a daily opportunity to the participants to make changes to their holdings.

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Many a time, Mr. Market ready to pay overpriced for the business and sometimes, He is ignoring too few of the businesses. We need to stay away to getting trapped from the Mr. Market mood swings. Mr. Market also behaves like a human being because prices of it and the behavior of it direct through human involvement as a market participant. We need to control our emotions based on our experience and belief over a while. We should stop overpaying attention to the market.

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If we are doing a business then daily price fluctuations will not be going to disturb us and we do not make a change to our holdings. Price fluctuations only provide an opportunity to buy a business at a favorable price and sell when Mr. Market shows a higher price of the business.

The main distinction between speculators and investors is their attitude towards the market. A speculator is willing to make profits by way of market fluctuations whereas investors are willing to hold security at a suitable price and market fluctuations do not important for them. Market prices are just for our conviction so that taking benefits of it or to ignore it depends on us.

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Stocks or a bond, the Market price will remain to fluctuate over a longer-term period. Good company with good management gets recognition into the good market price and bad management will get bad market price recognition.

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Mr. Graham has explained the liquidity concepts which is suitable for the current scenario. The fund manager purchases few stocks for the portfolio, then the market starts moving upwards which attracts the investors to put more money. Now, due to the additional fund inflow, the fund manager has to buy a similar stock to the additional fund which brings stock prices to the dangerous level. Now, as the market falls, investors ask for the withdrawal of the fund and fund manager has sold out stocks to make the payment which leads to further fall to the stock prices. So here, they buy at high and sell at a low price. Our brain makes a pattern that similar has happened during the last time so it might be going to happens now also. And many times, our brain creates a pattern when there is not the availability of any pattern.

What we should need to do for the better than average return –

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Our behavior is most important to get an above-average return. By controlling ourselves, we can stop ourselves from becoming our enemy. When we have made any prediction and that proven right then we become addicted to own predictions.

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Disclosure – Companies mentioned in the article are just for an example & educational purpose. It is not a buy/sell/ hold recommendation. 

Read for more detail: The Intelligent Investor by Benjamin Graham, Jason Zweig

Investment versus Speculation: Results to Be Expected by the Intelligent Investor

From today, I am going to start a series on Book The Intelligent Investor under the Bibliophile category. Mr.Buffett has always mentioned that he keeps on reading this book every year. This book helps us with the developing an investment philosophy and also, help us to recognize ourselves as an investor or a speculator. I am grateful to the readers by which I am getting motivated to keep writing more and sharing more pearls of wisdom.

Mr.Graham has started the book with the definition of an investor which is very essential for us to understand to becoming a wise investor.

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Many of the people call themselves as an investor but they are not meeting criterion mentioned by Mr. Graham. If a person does not meet any of the criterion mentioned above then we need to consider him as a speculator rather consider as an investor. We have to check to introspect and need to check whether we are meeting above criterion or not. If not then we are doing speculation though we called ourselves as an investor. I have seen many of the people focuses on the adequate return but not meet up other two criteria, or they meet safety and return but not meet up with thorough analysis so that we need to consider those as a speculator, not an investor. People get more involves speculation because they get excitement into it and investing is a boring & lonely game. But over a longer period of time, excitement does not reward us. The stock market is not a place for getting excitement or thrill but it is a place where we need to stay calm, cool with a balance of emotion and balance of activities with hyper activities. When we do speculation, we get an immediate result but not happens the same with the investment. We can earn through making an investment in the long term only if we play this game with the rules.

People call themselves as an investor though they are just buying and selling shares at the stock exchange. They do meet the criteria of being an investor or not. Investor word commands a good reputation among the people so we feel the pride to call ourselves as an investor but rather to just get feeling, we need to work on logic and accept the reality. Though we perform a thorough analysis of investment opportunities or not, we consider ourselves as an investor but we need to understand that it is easy to call ourselves as an investor but it is difficult to act as an investor.

  • A thorough analysis of companies means we need to analyze the soundness of the company, long term survival of the business, pricing power with the company, etc.
  • Our major focus should be on capital protection. When we work on capital protection, we have already won half of the battle. I always emphasis on my philosophy which is “Return of Capital” is more important rather than “Return on Capital”.
  • We need to focus on adequate return rather than earning an extraordinary return. We run behind getting rich within a short period of time so that we desire to earn an extraordinary return.

People can do speculation also but many a time, speculation becomes dangerous –

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If we cannot stop ourselves from doing speculation then put some fund aside for making speculation and we never put the fund into the same account for making speculation and for making an investment. Also, we should not increase a fund to the speculation account just because the market has gone up or we have a good profit into it, but we should bring out the fund from it and transfer it to the investment account. 10% limit of our overall wealth is permissible for the speculative bets and we should not violate this rule. When our speculative account goes above 10% then those amounts need to shift to the investment account and if it goes below 10% then we should not transfer fund from investment account to speculative account.

Mr.Graham has advised to the defensive investors to keep their portfolio into the high-grade bond and into the common stocks. We should have a range of bond should be into the 25-75%, not less than 25%, and not more than 75%. Similar to the common stock also.

We need to make a selection of stocks and bond on the basis of inflation, interest rate, the future expected return from stocks, etc. Which can help us to earn above inflation return. As a defensive investor, we should make an investment to the company which has a good business with a strong track record of financial. We should avoid buying hot stocks which can be harmful to our wealth during the long term. Mr.Graham also has mentioned the concept of Systematic Investment Plan (SIP) for the defensive investors.

Mr.Graham has explained methods for aggressive investors such as 1) buying a security which is doing better than market average, and those not doing better which are candidate for short selling a security 2) Buying a companies which are expected to post a good earning or other favorable development expected 3) Buying a companies which have given a good earnings growth in the past and expected to deliver similar to the future or companies does not have a good past earning but expected to post a good earning to the future.

Here, uncertainty associated with the investment is human error and wrongly estimation of future or estimated future is already into the current market price. When we buy stocks on the basis of current year good result with the similar will happens to the next year then it is highly possible that other participants also think in the same manner.

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If we buy popular stocks on the street then we end up with the result what everyone else is expecting. We are not able to get above average return. We have other ways to make a return without taking a huge risk is a special situation such as a merger, demerger, buyback, liquidation, delisting, etc.

One of the bargains is given by Mr.Graham was Net of Current Asset (I.e. Working Capital) after adjusting all the liabilities. That means the stock price is well below working capital – all the liabilities. Here, we are not taking a plant and other fixed assets into consideration. Such issues consider as a bargain to its value.

One of the Indian air cooler company was available below the net of current asset

Company has a current asset of Rs.74.24 crore and total borrowing was Rs.29 crore so that the net of the current asset was Rs.46 crore, whereas Market Capitalization of the company was Rs.35 crore at the end of FY2009.

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Many of the investors do not take rest when odds are not in our favors. They keep on doing something though things are not into their favor. Such hyperactivity is also dangerous to the long term return of investors.

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We have seen that many strategies and stories for the stock is getting popularized over a period of time and also erased as time get passes. We always need to focus that stocks only will perform well or poorly in the long run when business behind that stocks will do well or poorly. So that we need to focus on the performance of the business rather than focus on the different kind of strategy to becoming wealthy in the long run.

Disclosure – Companies mentioned in the article is just for an example purpose. It is not a buy/sell/ hold recommendation.

Read for more detail: The Intelligent Investor by Benjamin Graham, Jason Zweig