BIBLIOPHILE: THE MOST IMPORTANT THING BY HOWARD MARKS “CONTRARIANISM”

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Many investors are following the trend for making their investment decision but for becoming a superior investor, we need to think in an oppositely.

As we have seen that for becoming superior investors, we need to develop a skill of second level thinking. Second level thinking provides us an opportunities to generate above-normal returns and also protect us from the loss of capital. We need to think against the crowd because crowd generally operates at the basic level of thinking rather than the second level of thinking.

If we engaged in doing what others are doing then we also get what others are getting. So for getting superior from others, we need to think differently.

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When we are joining the herd then following the herd can be dangerous to our financial health. When people are highly optimistic then prices started moving upward, top-level starts to form. And when people are panicky selling then prices started to go down, bottom starts get the form.

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It seems much easier while we are understanding the concept but it is a much difficult task while we put it into the action.

1) We never come to know that how far pendulum will swing, when it will be reversed and how far it will swing to the opposite direction.

When pendulum starts moving towards an extreme then we are not able to know the extract extreme point and from where it will start reversing. Overpriced stock can become more overpriced and cheaper can become cheaper.

2) We can be only sure about the reaching of the pendulum to the extreme level. We can just make an estimation that pendulum will reach an extreme, reversed it to mid-point and move towards opposite direction where it will reach to another extreme point.

3) There are many points which can influence the market behavior, many reasons which make pendulum to swing and not anyone strategy which is always able to generate a higher returns.

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There are many examples where we can able to see the overpriced situations but we cannot be sure that such situations will reverse from tomorrow and starts going down. It can remain more overpriced and can keep on staying to the same situations for over a period of time.

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Cheap

We can able to see that expensive stock remains expensive for the longer period of time and cheaper get cheaper over a period of time.

Also, we cannot always go and make a decision to do the opposite of what everyone is doing. We cannot start walking backside as everyone is walking towards the front side. Just doing opposite of what everyone is doing, does not provide us profit-making opportunities. We need to analyse and make a logical reasoning then reach to the conclusion that we should go opposite or not.

Lossing money

If we just do opposite of what others are doing without doing proper homework then also we can able to lose our financial wealth. So that it is not only to take contrarian decision is enough but with it, proper homework is also required.

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If some assets are temporary getting hate by people & with our proper homework then making a contrarian decision on it help us to generate an above-normal returns.

If everyone like some idea than probably it has done well or doing well. And if everyone is liking some ideas then prices reflect those liking. So much risk involves when crowd changes their mind.  Price can fall significantly due to change in the mind of the crowd; which is harmful to our financial health.

We can able to create above average returns when we can able to buy an investment at the substantial discount. And the discount is available only when the major crowd is not liking it, not at where everyone is liking it.

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For the protecting our financial health, we require having a skeptical mindset. When we skeptically analyze any situations then we will not fall in trap with the crowd. We have to always keep in mind that what can happen and what is the probability of occurrence of those events.

When a crisis happens than actually, we can able to see & believe in the negative side of the market. But we have to skeptically think regarding the negative side when positive waves going on. We always need to think that what can go wrong while everything is going in a good way.

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If we believe in the story prevails among the market then we will definitely do what others are doing. We will tend to buy an investment at a high price with expectations of generating higher returns. We keep on buying overpriced securities with an expectation of another great fool will buy it from us. But we always need to keep in mind that while we are buying overpriced assets then we are only the great fool, no one else.

We will buy things which doing well and sell which performing poorly. Such actions resulted towards the losses during the crisis time, also we might not able to take benefits when things recover from the bottom. We remain followers not able to become contrarian.

We need to be skeptical enough for identifying the aspects that which is good for creating wealth and what is not good for it.

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If we keep on follow the herd then we will not get a chance to evaluate situation skeptically and we will lose while the optimistic situation turnout as a pessimistic situation.

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SNOWMAN LOGISTICS LTD. ANNUAL REPORT REVIEW FY2016-17, FY2015-16, FY2014-15

Snowman Logistics Limited, founded in 1993, is an integrated pan-India temperature-controlled logistics services provider.

Gateway Distriparks Limited is the promoter and the largest shareholder of the company. Snowman’s investor profile also includes Mitsubishi Corporation, Mitsubishi Logistics Corporation, International Finance Corporation and Norwest Venture Partners VII-A Mauritius.

Segment wise revenue

Annual Report Review FY16-17FY15-16, FY14-15

Disclaimer: This is not a recommendation to Buy-Sell-Hold. And I am not a SEBI registered analyst.

SIMPLE IS BETTER – ISSUE -10 – RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT AND BALANCE SHEET

We have seen profit and loss account in Issue-8 and Balance sheet in Issue-9. There is a relation between profit & loss account and balance sheet; which I am going to discuss in the current issue. We have to understand that relationship for better analysis of the financial statement and make a more wise investment decision.

No financial statement useful to us in isolation. We have to understand the impact of changes in one element on the other element of the financial statements which can be much use to us for knowing hidden stories of the companies. We can become better investors when we can able to understand the hidden truth behind the financial statements.

For Detail Issue, Click here —> SIMPLE IS BETTER – ISSUE -10 – RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT AND BALANCE SHEET

Balkrishna Industries Limited (BKT) ANNUAL REPORT REVIEW FY16-17

bkt-logo-white-2

Balkrishna Industries Limited (BKT) is a leading manufacturer in the Off-Highway tire market which was incorporated in the year 1987. The company has successfully focused on specialist segments such as agricultural, construction and industrial vehicles as well as earth moving, port and mining, ATV, and gardening applications and as a result, company comes out as a global player in the Off-Highway tire industry with a 6% market share.

The company sells products in 130 countries worldwide through a network of distributors. And company having a five production sites in Aurangabad, Bhiwadi, Chopanki, Dombivali, and Bhuj which employ more than 7,000 people.

BKT Applications

Annual Report Review FY16-17

Disclaimer: This is not a recommendation to Buy-Sell-Hold. And I am not a SEBI registered analyst.

 

BIBLIOPHILE: THE MOST IMPORTANT THING BY HOWARD MARKS “Combating Negative Influences”

In this article, I am going to discuss regarding the psychological factors which affect our decisions negatively.

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Market many times provide us an opportunities to earn superior performance through inefficiencies, mispricing, misperception, mistakes of other people.

But the question is why such opportunities come? What makes us different from other people? Why mistakes do occurs?

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We need to analyze data and reach the conclusion. In investing errors occurs not due to analytical factors but errors mainly come from psychological factors.

Let’s look at the few psychological elements which affecting the investment decisions.

First emotion is GREED – Desire for money.

Most of us are making an investment for making more money. If we don’t care about the making more money than we are not going to make an investment.
And also there is nothing wrong with trying to make money. The market and economy run because of our desire to make money. But we should remain careful with a transformation of desire towards greed.

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Real estate

Real estate sector in India in the year 2007-08 creates a bubble and huge jump in the optimism by everyone. Such situation resulted under the sharp fall in the value of the sector.

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Due to an impact of greed, people hope that their strategies help them to produce higher returns without taking higher risk for forever. And due to this hope, many times people hold highly priced securities with expectations of more appreciation can be possible. Many times such expectations went wrong and prove that expectations were unrealistic and people have ignored the risk.

Opposite of Greed is FEAR. As similar to the greed, excess fear is also harmful to the investors. Excess of fear stops us from taking a constructive decision while actually, we require taking such decisions. Due to fear, many a time we cannot able to make a good investment and also lose the opportunity.

The third factor is PEOPLE’S TENDENCY TO DISMISS LOGIC.
Generally, it happens that people stop using logical thinking and they start doing work with an irrational mindset. Many a time, we are not ready to accept logical reasoning for the situations and work as per unrealistic scenario. We do not apply what we have learned in the past but get easily deviate from those learning.

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When market or a particular strategy starts generating higher returns for a while, then we started believing that it will continuously generate such returns without an involvement of risk.

Howard Marks called such situations as “Silver bullet”, the Holy Grail.

But is it really same strategy keeps on generating higher returns without risk?

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As Warren Buffett mentioned, when prices started rising then it affects to the reasoning power of the people. It led to mania and situations of mania results towards the bubble.

The fourth factor is THE TENDENCY TO CONFORM TO THE VIEW OF THE HERD RATHER THAN RESIST.

Many a time, we started Believing to the crowd and starts to take an action as per the crowd behavior. Though behavior of the crowd is harmful and dangerous to us.

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The fifth factor is ENVY. Envy comes into the picture when we are comparing ourselves with others. And envy works as a negative force which affects our decisions.

When we see that our investment is growing then we remain happy. But the time we start comparing our investment returns with investment returns of others then we become sad. Now, envy starts showing its color and we make decisions which we may not take or which may be harmful to the financial health.

It is very difficult to see the higher growth of other compared to our growth.

Dost-fail-ho-jaye-to-dukh-hota-hai-lekin-dost-first-aa-jaye-to-jada-dukh-hota-hai

The sixth factor is EGO. Ego gets satisfaction while we generated higher returns compared to others. And we are keeps on evaluating our return in the short term. While we should focus on the longer horizon returns rather than keeps on tracking returns in the short term and also try to get out of the trap of ego. Ego can be harmful to the financial health. We keep on demonstrates that how much we know much compared to others rather than focusing on how much we know and how much we do not know.

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The seventh factor is the CAPITULATION. It means investors give up towards the situations while economic and psychological pressure becomes irresistible.

Many a time, overpriced assets become more overpriced, and underpriced assets become more and cheaper. This scenario affects to the psychology of investors and repetitions of such situations inspired investors to give up towards the situations and make investment decisions without using logical reasoning.

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When few or all the factors combined then it affects to the investor’s decision making and that affects the market. This resulted in the mistakes and those can be expensive for our financial health.

Psychology in IPO is funny. When our friend is applying to IPO and we asked for the business then he doesn’t know about the business. But he is applying for getting good returns. And he continuously getting higher returns and such higher returns earned by our friend attracts us to make an investment into the IPO. And such situations keep on repeating & more people get involved into the IPOs.

IPOs

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Read for more detail: The Most Important Thing Illuminated by Howard Marks

BIBLIOPHILE: THE MOST IMPORTANT THING BY HOWARD MARKS “AWARENESS OF THE PENDULUM”

In the previous article, we have seen that everything moves in a cycle. And if we cannot able to understand the cycle, then we must pay for it. In this article, I am going to discuss on moments of the pendulum and how we can take benefits of its moments.

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We have seen pendulum and its moments. Generally, pendulums do not always remain to the extremes, majority time pendulum stays near to its main point. And whenever pendulum moves towards its extreme then again it will come back towards either extreme. The force of the swing of the pendulum itself responsible for its reversal.

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Generally, our behavior towards the situation is responsible for the swing of the pendulum towards extremes and also responsible for coming back towards its mean point. Investors see the situation with either greed or fear and reach to the conclusion. When people are greedy, they become more optimistic toward the situation and they want to pay any premium for getting that situation favorable. Vice-versa, when people feel fear, then they are not ready to buy the stock at the cheapest value.

Excess greed creates risk taking behavior and excess fear creates a risk aversion among the people.

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As there are two major risks in investing – 1) Risk of losing our capital and, 2) Risk of losing opportunities. But when pendulum moves towards the extreme end, then one of the above risks will dominate our investment decisions.

When pendulum at extreme bullish situation then

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And when the pendulum nears to the extreme bearish situation then

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When things happen in a good manner, then people become more greedy and confident about the situations which bring optimism towards the particular situations. People forget the involvement of risk and ready to pay anything for getting the assets. Vice-versa when things not happening in a good manner, then people are more fearful towards the situations and realize the inherent risk. Such situations bring bargains for the assets.

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Sugar prices

Sugar stocks

We can able to see that when prices of sugar were low, people not ready to make an investment in the sector, etc. at such situations provide us a bargain opportunities and when things start getting well, we can able to make a good return. Vice-versa when everyone knows about the story, then that story is there in the price. We cannot able to make an abnormal return or chances are high to lose of our capital.

Wise people recognize the bargain first, then others will follow them and run behind the assets for buying it at any premium price.

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We have seen three phases of the bull market. As similar to it, the bear market also has three phases.

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When everyone fears with the negative news, events and they start thinking that such worst situations remain forever. Major bottom occurs over such situations. When everyone forgets that tide can again come in and such situations provide us a bargain opportunity. Vice-versa when everyone thinks that good time never going to end and they can generate higher returns easily, people forget that tide can go out then major top gets formed.

SENSEX

Those people who understand swing of the pendulum then they have protected their capital as well as made the huge return during the year 2009 and year 2014.

When everyone fears from the situations and think such worst remain forever. When such situations arise then the person who analyses and conclude that things can go better he can generate a better return with lower risk. Vice-versa when everyone thinks that things remain better forever than that is a period of painful losses.

The pendulum never continues to swing towards an extreme, it will be reversed from extreme. Extreme swing of the pendulum is itself responsible for the swing towards the opposite direction of the pendulum.

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Read for more detail: The Most Important Thing Illuminated by Howard Marks

 

BIBLIOPHILE: THE MOST IMPORTANT THING BY HOWARD MARKS “BEING ATTENTIVE TO CYCLES”

In this article, I am going to discuss on cycles and reasons for the occurrence of the cycle. For becoming a successful investor, we need to understand cyclicity of the market, earnings, business, etc., then only we can able to protect ourselves from the destruction of our wealth as well as we can able to grow our wealth.

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We as a human also born, grow up and die. These cycles keep on continue. And like that company also came into existence, grow up and once it will close or might get some revolution.

(Click here for human life cycle – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SdprpVCIhu0)

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As like our life, Economy, businesses, products, earnings of businesses, etc. also rise and fall. It also moves in a cycle. Many a time people forget that everything moves in a cycle and that situation provides us an opportunity for protecting and creating a wealth. We should always keep in mind that nothing in the world keeps on rising in a straightway. It will rise to an extreme level and falls to an extreme level.

NMDC

The margin of the company increases when the price of the iron ore increases and margin fall with the fall in the price of the iron ore. We must have to understand the cycle for protecting our wealth.

The main reason for the cyclical behavior of the economy is human involvement. Human nature is not mechanical but humans are emotional and inconsistent. Many a time Humans take the decision based on their feelings, emotions which itself cyclical in nature.

When we feel good, we remain optimistic about the situations and reverse when we feel bad then remain pessimistic about the situations. Our psychological involvement pushes cycle to the extreme points and after that extreme point, cycle corrects itself to the reverse direction and then again come to the mean value.

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If we see carefully, then we can able to understand that more worst loan given at a good time rather at the bad time. Because people forget the cyclical nature of the economy, industries, businesses, etc. also the credit available at cheaper rate. And additionally, people break discipline. They start to borrow extensively which will be resulted into the burst of the credit cycle.

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Credit cycle –

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When we are happy then we might get happier for some period and then our mood turns to the sad and vice-versa. Our mood also keeps on fluctuating and that turns out to be our happiness or sadness. Sometimes we become extremely happy or sad, but that situation does not remain similar for forever. It will change, it will get normalized.

So, if the cycle is in a good phase, then it might be remaining more good for the period and then correct for the bad phase and vice-versa. It will not remain good or bad for forever. It will come to the mean value at some point in time.

The cycle only stops occurring while people take all decisions by being unemotional and rational. But it is not always happening and such human decisions which will be resulted in the cyclical behavior of the market /economy. And this is only the major reason for keeps on occurring cycles.

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B Cyl 01

High profit into the business attracts the competition. This competition will turn high-profit margin into the low-profit margin. And business will fall into the problem. Many players get close and get out of the business. Consolidation of among the players will happen and few players survived in the business. Those survived players will again be getting a good amount of business and the again cycle starts moving. No business keeps on growing for forever with the same pace of growth.

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The growth of Indian IT is falling compared to initial days. Also, players among the industry and startup are rising rapidly.

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We always need to keep in mind that everything moves in a cycle and when we forget it, we will be at the risk of losing our capital.

Read for more detail: The Most Important Thing Illuminated by Howard Marks

 

SIMPLE IS BETTER – ISSUE -9 – OUR LIFE AND INVESTMENT – 3

We have seen profit and loss statement in issue 8. Now, in the current issue, I am going to discuss on the balance sheet. The balance sheet is another important financial statement which is essential for analyzing the financial strength of the person and of the company.

“A Balance Sheet is a statement of the financial position of a business which states the assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity at a particular point in time. In other words, the balance sheet illustrates your business’s net worth.” – The Balance

For Detail Issue, Click here —> SIMPLE IS BETTER – ISSUE -9 – OUR LIFE AND INVESTMENT – 3

BIBLIOPHILE: THE MOST IMPORTANT THING BY HOWARD MARKS “CONTROLLING RISK”

In the last article, we have talked about the identifying risk and recognizing risk. Now, in the current article, we discuss regarding controlling the risk. Generally, in the market, we put much emphasis on the higher absolute return instead of superior risk-adjusted return. But the great investors are those who focus on the risk and generate moderate returns with low risk or high return with moderate risk.

Generating higher returns with the higher risk for a long time is rare in the market. The risk of losing money arises when our investment meets adverse situations and Loss does not occur till the negative events occur. We should always focus on controlling the risk because we do not know that when the negative situation arises and we met losses.

When we bought the home, we check that the home is constructed in a way which can be protected by earthquake or not. The similarly, we should focus on our investment. We should focus on the situations where the occurrence of such negative situations can destroy our wealth. And work as an earthquake in our financial position.

It can be possible that an earthquake will never happen in life long, but we bought the home which can be protected with an earthquake. Similarly, it may be possible that adverse situations will not arise during our investment time, but we should focus on raising of adverse situations and how we can able to protect our wealth from such situations.

The risk is not always easily visible. If our surrounding environment is positive, then we start thinking that negative situation may not arise due to the influence of that positive environment. But in fact, the risk is always present in the good environment also. And anytime good environment can easily turn out to the bad environment. Such transformation does not come to us with the prior intimation. We must have to be ready properly with such considerations before making investment decisions. Even controlling risk is becoming essential into the good environment because nobody is talking about risk and in a bad environment, risk takes care of itself because everyone fearing of risk.

Generating superior return compared to benchmark with the similar risk nature is a good performance. But, a good value addition is while we generate a return which is like the benchmark return with the lowest risk and with proper controlling of the risk. Such scenario is even better.

 

When the environment is positive, everyone rides the wave and we cannot able to say which one is better. (Good article – Doubled your Money in Last 3 Years ? Skill or Luck ?)

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So that we should always focus on the controlling risk, whether it will rise or not. Because we cannot able to really predict the occurrence of the risk.

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Careful investors always know that they cannot able to know the future so that they try to focus on controlling risk and try to factor the risk of loss of capital while they make any investment decisions.

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We start avoiding focusing on risk as the environment is going positive. Initially, we might put weight on risk, but many times that risk might not get triggered. So that we start avoiding it and started believing that there is a no risk into the environment. Such risk will not occur and we saved from the negative situation.

As we have seen in Russian Roulette with 100 chances, we may save for 99 times, but the 1 time can kill us. Or if we are lucky we can be saved all the 100 times. It doesn’t mean that there is no risk or risk may not arise in the future.

Example – THE EVENTUAL CONSEQUENCES OF RISK SEEKING OR RISK BLIND BEHAVIOR

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We constructed belief in our mind from our past experiences. If we have seen the positive environment, then we have made belief that negative situations never come. We should always keep in mind that occasionally extreme situations can arise and that can be out of our all belief.

In the year 2007, also welcome structured products, huge capital inflows, etc.

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We should not run from the risk but should manage risk intelligently. We should take the risk, but at the appropriate time and most importantly at an appropriate price.

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When we walk on a road with keeping our eyes closed and we do not meet an accident, then it’s not our talent, it’s a pure luck which plays out. We are a real blind if we consider such situation as our own skill. And such risky situations do not stay rewarding for a long period and we must walk on the road with keeping our eyes open.

Read for more detail: The Most Important Thing Illuminated by Howard Marks